Knowledge Over Wealth- Ali (RA).

Knowledge Over Wealth- Ali (RA).

1) Knowledge will look after you, but you must look after the wealth.

2) Wealth is what was left behind by the likes of Fir’aun and Hamaan, knowledge is the inherited legacy of the Prophets themselves.

3) Spending wealth only diminishes it, whereas spending knowledge increases it.

4) Holding to the wealth over an extended period of time decreases its value, whereas no such harm can comes to knowledge.

5) There is always a fear that wealth might get stolen or lost, not so with knowledge.

6) The possessor of wealth may be known as a miser, whereas the possessor of knowledge can only be known as generous.

7) Wealth tends to create enemies, whereas knowledge tends to warm hearts.

8) Fir’aun’s vast wealth caused him to say “Truly I am deserving of your worship.” whereas Rasulullah (SAW)’s vast knowledge caused him to say, “Truly we have not worshiped You (O’Allah) as you deserve to be worshiped.”

9) Knowledge results in the heart’s illumination, whereas wealth results in its agitation.

10) On the Day of Reckoning it is your wealth you will have to be answerable for not your knowledge.


Wise Wonderful Lessons From Hazrat Ali (RA).

Wise Wonderful Lessons From Hazrat Ali (RA).

Hazrat Ali (RA) the 4th Khalifah said these wise wonderful words, may we all learn from it and inculcate it in our lives, Aameen.:

* Do not fear anything except your sins.
* Do not long for anything other than your Lord.
* Let no one of you lacking knowledge be too shy to ask until he learns.
* Do not delight in wealth, and do not be overwhelmed with grief when you
are afflicted with poverty.
* Do not be saddened by tribulations.
* Succeed with knowledge and live energetically forever.
* Beware of the flight of blessings (because of ingratitude and abuse), for nothing that runs away is returned.
* Islam is such a set of principles and beliefs that it will satisfy every seeker of truth.
* Be a good man to Allah , obedient slave and a bad man to your desires, and be one of the commoners among the people.
*Had there not been five bad qualities, all the people would have been righteous, contentment with ignorance, love for worldly life, miserliness, ostentation in good deeds and pride in their own intelligence.

Sayings of Abu Bakr (RA)

Sayings of Abu Bakr (RA)

1) Run away from greatness and greatness will follow you.
2) There is greatness in the fear of Allah, contentment in faith of Allah, and honor in humility.
3) Good actions are a guard against the blows of adversity.
4) Be good to others, that will protect you against evil.
5) If you expect the blessings of Allah, be good to His people.
6) Every day, nay every moment, try to do some good deed.
7) Have earnestness for death, and you will have life.
8) Death is the easiest of all things after it, and the hardest of all things before it.
9) The more knowledge you have, the greater will be your fear of Allah.
10) Without knowledge action is useless, and knowledge without action is futile.
11)  Knowledge is the life of the mind.
12) When a noble man learns knowledge he becomes humble, when an ignoble person gains knowledge he gets conceited.
13) When knowledge is limited, it leads to folly; when knowledge exceeds a certain limit, it leads to exploitation.
14) When you seek advice, do not withhold any facts from the person whose advice you seek.
15) When you advise any person you should be guided by the fear of Allah.
16) If any body seeks your advice, offer right and sincere advice.
17)  He who is not impressed by sound advice lacks faith.
18)  He who aspires to paradise should learn to deal with the people with kindness.
19) He who fears to weep should learn to be kind to those who weep.

Ali (RA) (The Fourth Caliph)

Ali (RA) (The Fourth Caliph)

Ali (RA) was born some thirty years after the birth of Rasulullah (SAW). He belonged the most respectable family of Quraish, the Banu Hashim. His father Abu Talib was the real uncle of Rasulullah (SAW) who brought him up after the death of Rasulullah (SAW) grandfather. Ali’s mother was Fatimah bint Assad, who belonged to Banu Hashim. Ali’s patronymic name was “Abul Hasan”. Rasulullah (SAW) gave him another name, “Abu Turab” which was most liked by Ali (RA). Rasulullah (SAW) took Ali in his childhood from his father, Abu Talib, and brought up him like his own son. When Rasulullah (SAW) started revelations Ali (RA) was about 10years old. Rasulullah (SAW) disclosed his mission before Ali and he accepted it immediately, thus he became the first youth to enter the folds of Islam. When Rasulullah (SAW) started to preach openly, he invited all of his family members to a feast and announced his mission before them. Nobody listened to him, but young Ali stood up and said. “Though my eyes are sore, my legs are thin and I am the youngest of all those present here yet I will stand by you, 0 Messenger of Allah.” Hearing this all the leaders of Quraish laughed but Ali proved his words to be true after supporting Rasulullah (SAW) in his mission from the beginning till the end. Rasulullah (SAW) loved him very much. The night when Rasulullah (SAW) was migrating to Medina, his house was surrounded by the bloodthirsty tribesmen, who had plotted to assassinate him. They were ready to kill any person who came out of the house. In such a situation, Rasulullah (SAW) asked Ali (RA) to sleep in his bed. He followed the command gladly and immediately jumped in the bed.Although the Meccans did not accept his mission, they considered Rasulullah (SAW) the most trustworthy man of Mecca and continued keeping their trusts (cash and gold etc.) with him. It was Ali (RA) to whom Rasulullah (SAW) gave the deposits to return to the owners, when he was leaving Mecca for Medina. Ali (RA) migrated to Medina after returning the deposits. Ali (RA) was very close to Rasulullah (SAW), and the closeness was changed to a permanent relationship when he married his most beloved daughter, Fatimah (RA) to Ali (RA). Ali (RA) also had the distinguished honour that the progeny of Rasulullah (SAW) continued through Ali’s (RA) sons from Fatimah (RA) namely Hasan (RA) and Husain (RA). The two children were the most beloved of Rasulullah (SAW)

The Title Of Asadullah

Because of his bravely Ali (RA) was popularly called “Asadullah”(The Lion of Allah). In the battle of Khaibar against Jews, the Muslims tried to conquer the strongest Jewish fort, Qumus, but were not successful in the beginning. Then Rasulullah (SAW) said, “I will give the command and the standard tomorrow to such a brave person who loves Allah and His Prophet and whom Allah and His Prophet love. Everybody desired to be that fortunate man. The people were rather surprised when the next morning Rasulullah (SAW) called Ali who was sick and his eyes were sore. Rasulullah (SAW) applied his finger, wet with his saliva, over the eyes of Ali (RA) and they were cured immediately. Then he gave the standard, and advised him. “First of all call them towards Islam. Even if one man is guided towards Islam because of you, it would be better than red camels.” Following the advice of Rasulullah (SAW) Ali (RA) invited the Jews towards Islam. Instead of accepting the Right Path they sent their commander Marhab, the great warrior of Arabia and one of the bravest men of his time. He challenged Ali (RA) to fight. Ali (RA) accepted the challenge and slew him in one attack. His famous sword cut Marhab’s body into two pieces. He showed great bravery in each and every battle he fought and earned fame. He was counted as one of the great warriors of Arabia. Ali (RA) was not only a great warrior but a great scholar as well. Rasulullah (SAW) said about him, I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.” He was one of the great jurists among the Companions. Rasulullah (SAW) appointed him as the Qadi (Judge) of Yemen during his life time. He was a master of Arabic and his writings were as effective as his speech. Ali (RA) had taken pledge of loyalty on the hands of all the three past Khalifah’s. However he was late in taking pledge at the hand of Abu Bakr (RA). The reason why he was late in taking pledge on the hands of Abu Bakr (RA) was the serious illness of his beloved wife, Fatima (RA) and that he was busy in collection of the Qur’an. It is mentioned in the famous history book, Tabaqat ibn Sa’d: When Abu Bakr (RA) enquired of Ali (RA) why he was so late in taking pledge of loyalty and whether he disliked his “Khilafat”, Ali (RA) replied, “I do not dislike your leadership but the fact is that I had taken an oath after the death of Rasulullah (SAW) not to put on my sheet (i.e. not to engage in any work) except for performing Salaat until I have collected all the parts of the Qur’an.” The Ali (RA) took pledge of loyalty on the hand of Abu Bakr (RA) and helped him throughout his Khilafat. He was very active during the time of Umar (RA) and also married his daughter, Umm-i-Kulthum to him. In the matter of Uthman’s (RA) election he voted in his favour as has been mentioned before. Ali (RA) was one of the very important members of “Shura” (Advisory Council) during the time of the first three Khalifah’s. He was also the great jurist (Mufti) of Medina during the time of past Khalifah’s. He was among the panel of six persons who had to select the Khalifah amongst them after Umar (RA). Uthman (RA) had great regard for him and consulted him in all the matters. His sons were the main guards at Uthman’s residence when the rebels laid siege to his house.
We conclude that Ali (RA) gave his fullest possible support to all of his predecessors.
The insurgents’ shameful act of assassination of the Khalifah could never have been imagined by Ali (RA) or any other eminent Companion at Medina. It came as a total surprise to Ali (RA) whose two sons, Hasan (RA) and Husain (RA) were guarding the gate of Uthman’s residence. The insurgents after climbing the back wall of the residence had assassinated the Khalifah. The assassination of Uthman (RA) was really due to creation of faction among the Muslim Community which was the goal of ‘Abdullah Bin Saba and his followers (the insurgents), and they achieved it. After the assassination of Uthman (RA), the insurgents virtually controlled the Capital, Medina for several days. The Muslims were frightened and sat behind closed doors. After the assassination of Uthman (RA) an unprecedented calamity had fallen on the Muslims and for three days, Medina was without any government. The insurgents approached Ali (RA) to be the Khalifah. Egyptians led by Ibn Saba and Ghafqi were the main group of insurgents behind the proposal for the Khilafat of Ali (RA). Ali (RA) first declined to bear the responsibility of this great office. But the insurgents pressed him to accept it. As a matter of fact Ali (RA) wanted to approach Talha (RA) and Zubair (RA) who were included in the panel of the six persons appointed by Umar (RA) to select a Khalifah. He wanted to take pledge of loyalty at the hands of any of these two gentlemen. But at the end, pressed by the threats of the regicides he decided to put the matter before Muslim public in the Mosque of Rasulullah (SAW). Most of the Companions in Medina considered him, to be the fittest person for “Khilafat” after Uthman (RA). He then agreed to take the responsibility and gave his consent.  On 21st Dhul-Hijjah 35 A.H. pledge of loyalty took place at the hands of Ali (RA). First of all the leading insurgents took the pledge of loyalty on his hands, followed by the general public, at Medina. Talha (RA) and Zubair (RA) did not want to take a pledge until the case of Uthman (RA) assassination was decided. Before that Ali (RA) had offered the office of Khilafat to both of them but they had declined. However under the threats of insurgents they took the pledge of loyalty at Ali’s (RA) hands, on the condition: “You (i.e.’ Ali) have to decide matters according to the Qur’an and Sunnah (ways of Rasulullah (SAW)) and would punish the guilty according to Islamic Law.” Ali (RA) agreed to their conditions. Sa’d bin Waqqas (RA) said that he would take pledge when all the Muslims had done so. Following Companions did not take pledge at the hands of Ali (RA): Muhammad bin Muslimah, Usamah bin Zaid, Hassan bin Thabit. Ka’b bin Malik, Abu Sa’id Khudri, Numan bin Bashir, Zaid bin Thabit, Mughira bin Shu’bah and ‘Abdullah bin Salam. Most of the members of Banu Ummayyah (Uthman’s family) also did not take pledge of loyalty at Ali’s (RA) hands. Some of such persons who did not take Bay’at went to Syria.  However the majority of the Muslims in Medina took pledge at the hands of Ali (RA). According to “Ahli Sunnah wal Jama`ah”, Ali (RA) was the most suitable and the fittest person for Khilafat after Uthman (RA). If some of the Companions did not take pledge on his hands, because of the political situation of that time, it did not mean that his Khilafat was not accepted by the Muslim majority. Besides Ali (RA) nobody including Mu’awiyah (RA) claimed to be the Khalifah at that time. The difference between them was the question of punishment to the assassins, which took the shape of various battles. As it would be seen afterwards Amir Mu’awiyah (RA) declared his Khilafat only after the death of Ali (RA). Ali (RA) was declared to be the Khalifah not only by the insurgents but by the Muslim public as well including the leading Ansar (Helpers) and Muhajirin (Emigrants). This could also be noticed with the fact that in the first battle which took place between Ali (RA) and Aisha (RA) (and her group) about 800 of those Companions who had participated in the Treaty of Hudaibiyah were with Ali (RA) besides other Companions. Ali (RA) was the most popular figure at that time and was the most appropriate person to be the fourth caliph.The period of Ali’s (RA) Khilafat extending to four years and about nine months, was marked by civil war. His rule was characterized by a series of revolts for the first time in the history of Islam. He was elected as the Khalifah in the most critical period of Islamic history. The martyrdom of Uthman (RA) was an extraordinary event about which the Rasulullah (SAW) had already prophesied. Ali (RA) was in a very difficult situation. On the one hand the assassins and the insurgents were creating endless trouble for him, and on the other hand Banu Ummayyah (Uthman’s family) fled to Syria and incited Amir Mu’awiyah to stick to his demand for avenging Uthman’s (RA) assassins. Ali (RA) faced these problems and difficulties with extraordinary courage and presented before us an exemplary character. He never had full support even from his friends in Kufa but still remained firm in his position. As it has been described before, he could never locate the real assassins of Uthman (RA) and this could not be achieved until peace was established. Therefore his first task was to create an atmosphere of peace in the state. But the insurgents never wanted peace. They worked on both sides. On the one side they made it difficult for Ali (RA) to find out the assassins, and on the other hand they sent their agents to Syria to incite the people (especially Umayyad’s) against Ali (RA). Their main aim was to let the Muslims fight among themselves so that they might prosper. Ali (RA) knew all this but he was unable to take any firm action because of the civil war. The third problem faced by Ali (RA) was the Kharijite movement. They were extremists and misled a number of innocent Muslims. They did not hesitate to use sword against persons who do not agree with them. They developed many beliefs foreign to Islam, although they appeared to be very pious but very politically, they were corrupt. Ali (RA) dealt with them with an iron hand. He realized that if they were not wiped out in the beginning they would mislead future generations. He was successful in destroying their strong hold. However some of them, who escaped, went underground but they were never in a strong position. Ali (RA) tried his utmost to unite the Muslims and bring them back on one platform but he was not successful. The tragic death of Uthman (RA) signal for blood shed among the Muslims. The Companions were not to be blamed for it at all. This was caused by anti-Islamic elements in the form of insurgents, (‘Abdullah ibn Saba and his followers). Historical facts bear it out that Abdullah ibn Saba became the greatest enemy of Islam. It was he who shattered the unity of Muslims forever. After completing their mission the insurgents made pretence of being Ali’s (RA) friends but they never helped him nor the cause of Muslim Unity. No sooner had Ali (RA) assumed Khilafat than a group of the same miscreant Sabaites who had brought about the cold-blooded assassination of Uthman (RA) began to demand due retribution for the murder of the Khalifah and started to incite Muslims only to create division among them. Thus they played a double role. A group of them showed themselves as friends of Ali and another group (much smaller than the first) went to Syria and other parts of Islamic State to incite the Muslims against Ali (RA). Ali (RA) faced all these problems with courage and never lost heart. He was a man of strong will power and determination and was quite right in his decisions. Ali (RA) was a model of simplicity and self denial. He led a simple life from the cradle to the grave, and was a true representative of Rasulullah (SAW). Ali (RA) had neither a servant nor a maid when Fatima (RA) the most beloved daughter of Rasulullah (SAW) was married to him. She would grind corn with her own hands. Purity of motives and selflessness were the keynote of his life. He was a wise counselor, a true friend and a generous foe. He did not have a desire for the Khilafat after Uthman’s (RA) assassination, but when he was selected he tried his best to fulfill his responsibility. He was very honest and trustworthy. His trustworthiness can well be imagined from the fact that Rasulullah (SAW) entrusted to him all the cash and other things, he was having in his trust, at the time of his migration to Medina so that Ali (RA) would return them to the owners. Once some oranges came to Bait-ul Mal, Hasan (RA) and Husain (RA) took one orange each. When Ali (RA) saw them having the oranges he took the fruit away from them and distributed them among the poor. Whenever any booty came to be distributed according to the Islamic law, he distributed it very honestly. Once he distributed all the revenue of the Bait-ul Mal (Public Treasury), then broomed it and offered two rakaat Salaat in the room.

He did not leave his simplicity even though he was the Khalifah and the ruler of a vast state. Once a person named ‘Abdullah ibn Zarir had an opportunity to take meals with him. The meal was very simple. ‘Abdullah asked, “0 Amir Ul Muminin, don’t you like the meat of birds?” Ali (RA) replied, “The Khalifah has a right in Muslim (Public) property only to the extent sufficient for him and his family.”  Ali (RA) was a very generous Muslim. He never refused a beggar. Sometimes he gave all of his property to the poor and sold his arms to get food. Once he said during his lecture, “I went to sell my sword. I swear Allah, had I only that amount of money for which I could buy a “Sirwal” (i.e. a trousers), I would never have sold my sword.” Hearing this one person stood up and said, “I give you a loan.” There are many stories about his generosity which for lack of space are not being mentioned. Ali (RA) was a great worshipper and used to offer long Salaah. He was Hafiz of the Qur’an. He was so punctual for the “Tasbeeh” (Tasbeeh-i-Fatima) i.e. remembrance of Allah that he never left it, even during battles.  He was very kind to others. He showed his kindness even to his enemies. Once one of his enemies fell down naked because of his attack. Seeing his condition he did not kill him and left him so that he might not be ashamed of his nakedness. After the battle of “Jamal” against Ayesha (RA), he treated Ayesha (RA) very respectfully. He himself went to see her and when she told him that she would like to go to Medina he asked her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr to escort her. He never mistreated his enemies. During the time of Rasulullah (SAW) once he overcame a Jew in a fight, and sat on his chest to kill him. The Jew spat at his face. Ali (RA) at once left him. Seeing this the Jew was very much surprised and asked the reason. Ali (RA) said, “I was killing you for Allah’s sake but when you spat on my face, my sincerity was endangered because of the personal feelings.” Hearing this the Jew immediately accepted Islam.  His character and morals were so high that even Amir Mu’awiyah praised them. Once Amir Mu’awiyah asked Dirar Asadi, one of his friends, to tell some of Ali’s high quality. Dirar Asadi refused first but when Amir Mu’awiyah insisted Dirar said, “He was a man of strong will power and determination. He always gave a just judgment, and was a fountain of knowledge. His speech was full of wisdom. He hated the pleasure of this world and loved the darkness of night to cry before Allah. His dress was most simple and he liked simple meals. He lived like a common man and when anybody put any question before him, he replied with outmost politeness. Whenever we asked him to wait for us he waited like a common man. Although he was very near to us because of his high morals, we were afraid of him sometimes of his grandeur – and eminence due to his nearness to Allah. He always respected a pious man and a scholar. He was nearest to the poor. He never allowed a powerful man to take advantage of his power. The weak were never disappointed of his justice. I bear witness that in many battles he woke up during the night and took hold of his beard and started to cry and weep before Allah as though he was in a state of commotion and exclaimed: “O World! Do not try to betray me. I have divorced (left) you long ago. Do not have any desire for me. I hate you. Your age is short and your end is despised. 0! The provision is very little and the journey is too long (i.e., the journey to hereafter), and way is full of danger …..” Hearing this Amir Mu’awiyah (RA) started to weep and cry and said, “May Allah bless Abul Hasan (i.e. Ali). I swear by Allah he was a person of the character, you described.”  At this point it should be noted that the differences of the Companions were not like that of us. They differed with each other for the sake of Allah but always admired each other’s good habits. Although Amir Mu’awiyah (RA) was having differences with Ali (RA), he admired the excellence of Ali (RA) throughout his life and often said that he could never be equal to Ali (RA). As a matter of fact the degree of their sincerity could not be imagined. We think every thing in terms of worldly benefit, they considered every matter in terms of love with Allah, love with the Prophet of Allah and the success in the hereafter.

Wives And Children
1) Ali’s (RA) first wife was the most beloved daughter of Rasulullah (SAW), Fatimah (RA). He got three sons (Hasan, Husain and Muhsin), and two daughters (Zainab and Umm-i-Kulthum) from her. The youngest son, Muhsin died in childhood.
After the death of Fatimah (RA) he married a number of wives from time to time:
2) Umm al-Banin bin Hizam from whom he got ‘Abbas, Ja’far, ‘Abdullah and Uthman. All of these except Abbas were martyred at Karbala.
3) Saila bint Mas’ood who gave birth to ‘Ubaidullah and Abu Bakr. They were martyred at Karbala.

4) Asma bint Umais who gave birth to Yahya and Muhammad Asghar.
5) Sahba bint Rabi’a who gave birth to Umar and Ruqayyah.
6) Amamah bint Abil ‘As: She was daughter of Zainab (RA), daughter of Rasulullah (SAW). Ali (RA) got Muhammad Aswat from her.
7) Khaulah bint Jalfar who gave birth to Muhammad ibn
8) Umm-i-Sa’id who gave birth to Ummul Hasan and Ramlah Kubra.
9) Mahyah bint Ummul Qais, she gave birth to a daughter who died in childhood.
Ali (RA) also had a number of slave girls from whom he bore the following daughters:
Umm-i-Hani, Maymoona, Zainab Sughra, Ramlah Sughra, Umm-i-Kulthum Sughra, Fatimah, Umamah, Khadijah, Umm-i-Salama, Umm-i-Ja’far, Jamanah and Nafisa, According to Ibn-i-Jarir, Ali had 17 daughters and 14 sons. His family continued through five sons: Imam Hasan, Imam Husain, Muhammad ibn Ali, Umar bin Ali, and ‘Abbas ibn Ali.

Assassination Of Ali (RA)
After the battle of Nahrwan the “Khwarij” had gone underground. As a matter of fact they were as much against. Ali (RA) as they were against Mu’awiyah (RA). They were still working against the Khilafat and they were greatly disgusted with the civil war that seemed endless.  To end this state of affairs, they worked out a dangerous plot. According to them Muslims were divided because of differences between Ali (RA) and Amir Mu’awiyah (RA). They also disliked ‘Amr ibn ‘As and considered him as chief planner for Amir Mu’awiyah (RA). They decided, therefore, to assassinate all the three of them. It was planned that the three personalities would be struck at the same time on the same day.  Three persons, appointed to assassinate Ali, Mu’awiyah, and ‘Amr ibn ‘As (RA) was Abdur Rehman Muljam, Bark ibn ‘Abdullah, and ‘Amr ibn Bark respectively. Early hours of the 17th of Ramadhaan, 40 A.H., was fixed for the assassination. After the Fajr Salaat of the 17th Ramadhaan in the year 40 A.H. (661 A.D.) the three appointed Kharljis struck the three men. Amir Mu’awiyah (RA) escaped with a scratch, Amr ibn ‘As did not turn out for the Imamat because he was sick that day thus was unhurt, Ali (RA) was mortally wounded with the poisoned sword of Ibn Muljam. He passed away in the evening of Ramadhaan 20, 40 A.H.  Ibn Muljam was caught by the people after he had struck Ali (RA). Ali (RA) asked the Muslims to slay him if he died. At the same time of his death Ali (RA) called his sons and advised them to serve Islam and to be good with the Muslims. When somebody asked him should the Muslims take pledge of loyalty at the hands of his elder son, Hassan (RA), he replied, “I leave this decision to the Muslims.” He also advised people not to kill any person other than the assassin to avenge him.
He was 63 years old at the time of his death and had ruled for four years and nine months as the Khalifah.  According to a number of historians his real grave is not known because his son Hasan (RA) took out his body from the grave after he was buried because of the fear of Kharijis and buried him at an unknown place.

Uthman Ibn ‘Affan (RA) (Third Caliph)

Uthman Ibn ‘Affan (RA)  (Third Caliph)

Uthman (RA) was born some six years after the birth of the Prophet (SAW). His father’s name was Affan. Arwa was the name of his mother. His grandmother, Baiza, was a daughter of Abdul Muttalib and therefore an aunt of the Prophet (SAW). Uthman (RA) belonged to the Omayya branch of the Quraish. Banu Omayya were thought to be the equals of Banu Hashim. The national flag of the Quraish was in their keeping. When Uthman (RA) grew up, he became a cloth merchant. His business grew rapidly and he came to be looked upon as a top business man of the city. He often visited Syria in connection with his business. Flourishing business brought him both wealth and position. However, Uthman (RA) was an extremely kindhearted man. He looked upon wealth as a means of helping others.
It was Abu Bakr (RA) who won Uthman (RA) for Islam. Abu Bakr (RA) and Uthman (RA) were great friends. The Prophet (SAW) belonged to Banu Hashim and Uthman (RA) belonged to Banu Omayya. There was old rivalry between the two tribes. This did not keep back Uthman (RA) from accepting the truth. As soon as he heard the message of Islam, he accepted it. He was one of the first Muslims. The Prophet (SAW) gave to him his daughter, Ruqayyah (RA) in marriage.
By becoming a Muslim, Uthman (RA) drew upon himself the anger of his relatives. His uncle, Hakam, tied his hand and foot. He then shut him up in a dark room. Uthman (RA) gladly underwent all kinds of torture, but refused to give up Islam.
The Quraish who once loved Uthman (RA) now became his enemies. His own relatives would have nothing to do with him. This made Uthman (RA) feel miserable. He went to the Prophet (SAW) and asked permission to go to Abyssinia. The permission was given. Othman was the first Muslim to leave for Abyssinia. He and his wife crossed the Red Sea and sought refuge in Abyssinia. They were the first to give up their home and all they had for the cause of Allah.
When migration from Mecca began, Uthman (RA) and his wife Ruqayyah (RA) also went to Medina and settled there. Uthman (RA) was among those who were very close to the Prophet (SAW). He fought by the side of the Prophet (SAW) in all battles except Badr. He could not go to Badr because his wife, Ruqayyah (RA) , was very ill. The Prophet (SAW) himself told Uthman (RA) to stay back at Medina and attend to his ailing wife. Ruqayyah (RA) died of this illness. Uthman (RA) took the death of Ruqayyah (RA) very much to heart. He was all the more sad because he no longer enjoyed the honor of being the son-in-law of the Prophet (SAW). The Prophet (SAW) saw this. So he married to Uthman (RA) his second daughter, Umm Kulthum (RA). This was a rare honor. It earned for Uthman (RA) the title of “Zun-Noorain,” or “the possessor of two lights.”
In the sixth year of Hijrah was signed the treaty of Hudaibiya. Uthman (RA) played an important part in the peace talks. It was he who was sent by the Prophet (SAW) to contact the Quraish. The Quraish said they had no objection if Uthman (RA) alone visited the Kaaba, but they were unwilling to let the Messenger of Allah (SAW) enter Mecca. To this Uthman (RA) replied: “It is unthinkable that I take preference over the Prophet (SAW). If he can’t visit the House of Allah, I too, will not visit it.” Uthman’s (RA) firm stand at last forced the Quraish to yield ground.
In the meantime, a rumor got afoot. It was given out that Uthman (RA) had been killed by the Quraish. The report shocked the Prophet (SAW). He determined to avenge the death of Uthman (RA). He stood under a tree and took a pledge from his followers. He struck his hand on each man’s hand and the man said, “I will fight unto death for the sake of Uthman.” Such was the regard in which Uthman (RA) was held by the Prophet (SAW)! However, the rumor proved to be untrue. Uthman (RA) came back safe and sound.

In the ninth year of Hijrah, reports reached the Prophet (SAW) that the Emperor of Byzantium was preparing a march on Medina. These reports disturbed the Muslims. The Prophet (SAW) began to counter preparations. He appealed to people to give whatever they could. Uthman (RA) gave one thousand camels, fifty horses and one thousand pieces of gold. The Prophet (SAW) looked at the heap of gold and declared, “Whatever Uthman (RA) does, from this day on, will do him no harm.”
Uthman (RA) was one of the scribes of the Prophet (SAW). He was one of the men who wrote portions of the Qur’an as they were revealed. He was also one of the ten Companions whom the Prophet (SAW) gave the good news of the kingdom of Heaven.
Closeness to the Prophet (SAW) won Uthman (RA) a high place among the Companions. He was one of the advisors of Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) during their Caliphate.

Uthman’s (R

Umar Ibn al-Khattaab (Second Caliph)

Umar Ibn al-Khattaab (Second Caliph)

One night the Prophet (SAW) stood in the Kaaba, lost in thoughts. Presently he raised his hands and turned his eyes heavenward. “Lord!” he prayed, “make Islam strong with either of the two men, Amr bin Hisham or Umar bin Khattaab.” The prayer was instantly granted. Allah chose Omar to serve Islam. Amr bin Hisham was to die as Abu. But Umar (RA) was to become a great pillar of strength for Islam. Umar (RA) was twenty seven when the Prophet (SAW) began his mission. Young Umar was one of those who did not care to listen to the message of Islam. He was for the old way of life. As years went by, Islam made a slow headway. This made Umar angry. Do what the Meccan chiefs might, people who once went over to Islam never went back to their old faith. One of Umar’s own maid-servants became a Muslim. He beat her as much as he could, but she would not give up the new faith.  At last in the sixth year of the Mission, a number of Muslims left for Abyssinia. This made Umar boil with rage. “Here is a man,” he thought to himself “who has split the people. People lived smoothly enough. He appeared on the scene He has torn son from father and brother from brother. Now his followers are running away to another land. Surely Muhammed is the cause of all trouble. I must slay him and put an end to the trouble.”  With this resolve Umar drew his sword and set out to kill the Holy Prophet. On the way he met a friend who asked him why he looked so upset. Umar told him what he was going to do. “You better take care of your own kin first,” said the friend, “Your sister and her husband have gone over to Islam.”  These words changed the direction of Umar’s anger. He went straight to the house of his sister, Fatima. He knocked at the door. Someone was reciting the Quran inside. Fatima was terrified when she heard Umar’s voice. She hid the portion of the Quran she was reading and opened the door.  “What was it that you were reciting just now?” Umar demanded.  “Oh nothing,” said his sister.  “Why nothing?” he shouted in rage.  “I have heard it alright. I know you both have accepted Muhammed’s faith.”  Saying this, he began to beat his brother-in-law, Saeed. Fatima ran to his help and got a blow to the head. The head began to bleed. This made the couple bold. “Yes, we have become Muslims,” they shouted at Umar. “Do what you will.”  The sight of his bleeding sister deeply moved Umar. Fatima was such a loving sister! Surely there must be some great truth in the Quran which had won her innocent heart. “Would you let me have a look at the Quran?” said Umar.  Fatima handed him the few pages of the book she had. Umar sat down to study the pages. Soon his face changed. His anger cooled down. The fear of Allah gripped his heart. He wept and declared, “Surely this is the word of Allah. I bear witness that Muhammed (SAW) is the Messenger of Allah.”  Umar was again on his way to the place of the Prophet (SAW). But he was not a changed man. He was not going to slay him but to embrace his faith. The Prophet (SAW) was sitting in the company of some men. He saw Umar coming and asked, “Umar, what brings you here?”  “O Prophet of Allah!” replied Umar, “I have come to embrace Islam.” Great was the joy of the Prophet (SAW) and his followers. Loud shouts of “Allah is Great” rented the air of Mecca. Soon everyone knew that Umar (RA) was no longer an enemy of Islam. It was a great day for Islam because one of its bitterest enemies had become its staunch follower.  Umar (RA) becoming a Muslim made a difference for Islam. The Muslims had lived in constant fear of the non-believers. Some of them had not even made their faith known to the people. They could not say their prayers publicly. All this changed when Umar (RA) became a Muslim.  The first thing Umar (RA) did was to call together the chiefs of Mecca. Before this gathering he declared himself a follower of Islam. They started at him in silence. No one had the courage to utter a word of reproach. Umar (RA) next requested the Prophet (SAW) to say prayers in the Kaaba. He himself led a party of Muslims to that place. A second party was led by Hamza. When all had gathered, they said their prayers in congregation. The Prophet (SAW) led the prayer. This was the first prayer of its kind said in the Kaaba.  When migration to Medina started, the same thing happened again. Most of the Muslims left Mecca silently and secretly, Umar (RA) would not do so. He put on his arms. Then he went to the Kaaba and said his prayer. The chiefs of Mecca looked at him in silence. After the prayer, he shouted out to them, “I am leaving for Medina. If anyone wants to stop me let him meet me across the valley. His mother shall certainly have to weep for him in sorrow.”  Despite this challenge, no Meccan would dare to stop Umar (RA). These things earned for Umar (RA) the title of “Al-Farooq” (Farooq is the one who makes a difference) Umar (RA) acceptance of Islam had made a big difference for Islam and Muslims. Umar (RA) stood by the side of the Prophet (SAW) in all battles and expeditions. Great was his love for Allah and His Apostle (SAW). He never allowed any blood ties or friendship to stand in the way of this love. The death of the Prophet (SAW) was a shock to Umar (RA). He could not believe it, so much so that he drew his sword and swore that he would cut off the head of the man who said the Messenger of Allah (SAW) was dead. He was overwhelmed with grief. Life without the Prophet (SAW) was unthinkable, he thought. And if the Prophet (SAW) was really no more, as people said, what was going to happen to Islam and the Muslims? These dark thoughts blotted out all reason from Umar (RA) head. Not till Abu Bakr (RA) had reminded him of the clear verdict of the Quran on the point did he come to himself. Abu Bakr (RA), during his caliphate, depended on Umar (RA) for advice. That was because the Master, in his life-time, gave great weight to what Umar (RA) said.

Caliph Umar (RA) inaugural speech

After the assumption of office as the second Caliph, Umar (RA) soon realized that he was more feared than loved. Abu Bakr (RA), his predecessor, was tender and soft hearted. Whenever he appeared in the streets of Medina, the children ran to him saying “Father, Father.”  On the occasion of the first Friday prayer after his assumption of office as Caliph, Umar (RA) addressed the faithful assembled in the mosque of the Prophet (SAW) in the following terms:  “Brethren, it has come to my notice that the people are afraid of me. They say when the Prophet (SAW) was alive, Umar was harsh to us. During the caliphate of Abu Bakr (RA), Umar was hard and stern. Now that he has become the Caliph himself, Allah knows how hard he will be. Whoever has said this is not wrong in his assessment. The truth of the matter is that I was the slave and servant of the Prophet (SAW). The Prophet (SAW) was most kind hearted, liberal and generous. In contrast I was hard and harsh. Sometimes he ignored my point of view. There were occasions when he agreed with me. Till the death of the Prophet (SAW) that remained the situation between him and me. Thank Allah; the Prophet (SAW) was pleased with me. Though the Prophet (SAW) sometimes accepted my advice, and sometimes turned it down, yet he approved of my conduct. During the caliphate of Abu Bakr (RA) my role remained the same. Abu Bakr (RA) was most soft hearted and tender. It was my business to bring the other side of the picture to his notice. He always took my point of view into consideration, but the ultimate decision lay with him. Sometimes he agreed with me, and I acted as his agent to enforce a decision which appeared to be harsh. Sometimes he did not agree with me, and I had to remain quiet. I am happy that throughout the period of his office, Abu Bakr (RA) approved of my conduct, and ultimately nominated me as his successor, although I did not covet the office. Now that the entire responsibility has come to vest in me, know you brethren that you will feel a change in me. I will no longer be hard and stern in all matters. For those who practice tyranny and deprive others of their rights, I will be harsh and stern, but for those who follow the law, and are devoted to religion, I will be most soft and tender. I will not tolerate any person make any excess. He who commits any tyranny, him I will sternly call to account. I will be harsh and stern against the aggressor, but I will be a pillar of strength for the weak and the meek. They will find in me their best friend. Friends you have some rights on me, and I tell you of these rights, so that you may be in a position to call me to account. These rights are:Firstly: That I should not exact any tax or other levy from you not authorized by law.Secondly: That whatever taxes are lawfully realized from you are spent in your best interests.Thirdly: It is incumbent on me that I should protect the frontiers of your land.Fourthly: It is my duty to promote your prosperity and look after your interests.Fifthly: It is my obligation to do justice. O servants of Allah, continue to fear Allah. Suppress your selfish motives and work for the solidarity of the Muslims as a whole. In running the State, you are my partners. Help me with your sound advice. If I follow the right path laid down by Allah and His Prophet (SAW) follow me. If I deviate, correct me. Strengthen me with your advice and suggestions. Let us pray for the glory of Islam.”

Umar (RA) last days

There lived in Medina a Persian slave, Abu Lolo Firoz by name. One day, he came to the Caliph and said, “My master squeezes too heavy a tax out of me. Please get it reduced.” “How much is the tax?” asked Umar (RA).  “Two dirham’s a day,” replied the slave. “And what skills do you posses?” was the next question of the Caliph. “I am a carpenter, a painter, and a black-smith,” Firoz said.  “Then the tax is by no means too heavy,” the Caliph remarked. “A person with your skills can easy pay this tax and shall live comfortably.”  “All right, I will settle with you,” grunted the slave as he went away. Umar (RA) took no notice of the words.  “I have been rebuked by a slave.” he remarked with a smile. Early next morning Umar (RA) went to the mosque as usual to lead the prayer. Abu Lolo was already hiding in the corner, with a dagger in hand. As soon as Umar (RA) began the prayer, the slave jumped on him. He gave six cuts with the dagger on the Caliph’s body. The horrified worshippers overpowered the assassin. Thereupon the wretch slew himself with the same dagger. Umar (RA) kept lying in a pool of blood until the prayer was over. Then he was carried home.  “Who is my assassin?” he asked.  “Abu Lolo,” said the people. “Allah be thanked!” said Umar (RA). “It is not a Muslim who has shed my blood.” A physician was called in to dress and treat the wounds of the Caliph. He said they were too deep to be healed. At this many people who stood around began to weep.  “Please do not weep,” implored Umar (RA). “Have you not heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say that the weeping of relatives adds to the torture of the dead person?”  Finding his end in sight, Umar (RA) called his son, Abdullah. “My son,” he said, “go to Ayesha (RA). Give her Umar’s greetings. Do not refer to me as the Commander of the Faithful; for I am no longer one. Place before her my wish to be buried in her room, by the side of the Prophet (SAW) and my illustrious predecessor.” Abdullah found Ayesha (RA) weeping. He delivered his father’s message to her.  “I wanted to reserve this spot for my own grave, but I prefer Umar (RA) to myself,” said Aisha (RA).  Abdullah conveyed Ayesha (RA) consent to his dying father.  “Allah be thanked!” said Umar (RA). “This was the greatest wish of my life. But look, son, when you take my dead body to Ayesha’s room, again give her my greetings and ask her permission. If she allows, bury me there, otherwise bury me in the graveyard of Medina.

The people asked the dying Caliph to name the man who should fill his place. “If I do so,” said Umar (RA), “I have the example of Abu Bakr (RA) before me. But if I do not do it, there is the example of the Messenger of Allah (SAW). If Abu Obaida Jarrah had been alive, I would have nominated him. That is because I heard the Prophet of Allah (SAW) call him ‘the trustee of the people.’ Of if Hazifa’s slave, Salim, had been alive, I would have nominated him. That is because I heard the Prophet of Allah (SAW) call him ‘an ardent lover of Allah.'”  “Nominate your own son Abdullah,” suggested someone. “Because of his learning and piety he is a very fit person.”  “One man is enough from Khattaab family,” spoke back Umar (RA), “to answer before Allah, for the management of the affairs of Islam. If Umar can render an even account, he will feel most happy. I have borne this burden during this life. I don’t want to keep it on my shoulders after I am dead.”  When asked again about this question, he said, “There are six men. The Prophet of Allah (SAW) has foretold about their entering the kingdom of heaven. They are Ali, Uthman, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, Zubair bin Awwam and Talha bin Ubaidullah. I ask them to sit together and choose one of them as the Caliph. If all of them cannot agree on the name, let the vote of the majority decide on the matter.”  Umar (RA) left a will for his successor which said:  “Fear Allah and protect the rights o the Muhajireen and the Ansar. Take from the rich and give to the poor. Treat the non-Muslims well and always keep your word.” As the end drew in sight, Umar (RA) began to weep, because of the fear of Allah. “My son,” he called out to Abdullah, “help me put my forehead on the ground.” Abdullah obeyed.  “O Allah,” murmured the dying Caliph, “cover me with Your forgiveness. If that does not happen, woe to me and woe to the mother who bore me.” The next moment Umar (RA) was in the lap of Allah’s mercy and forgiveness. He died on Wednesday the 27th of Dhul Hijjah, 23 A.H., after lying wounded for three days. He was sixty-three at the time of death.

Some Incidents From The Life Of Umar (RA) When He Was Caliph

1) Umar (RA) was very anxious about the outcome of the battle. Each morning, he walked a few miles out of Medina and waited for the messenger of Qadisiya. One day, as he sat waiting, a camel-rider appeared in the distance.  “Where from?” asked Umar (RA), as the man came near.  “From Qadisiya,” came the reply, and the man kept galloping on. Umar (RA) ran by his side to keep pace and asked, “But what news have you brought?” “Allah has granted victory to the Muslims,” was the answer. Thus Umar (RA) went on running by the side of the messenger, getting more details from him. When the two reached the town, people greeted Umar (RA) as the “Commander of the Faithful”. The messenger was taken aback. He had never seen Umar (RA) before. “O Commander, of the Faithful,” he said in a low voice, “why did you not tell me who you were?”  “No harm has been done,” said Umar (RA). “Please go on with the details of your message.”

2) The rich booty from the White Palace at last reached Medina. It lay heaped in the Prophet’s Mosque. The sight of it brought tears to Umar (RA) eyes.  “There is nothing to weep at,” remarked one of the men standing near him. “I weep,” said Umar (RA), “because riches beget enmity and mutual bitterness. A nation which has these evils loses its respect.”  The booty also included the Emperor’s sword. Its handle was inlaid with jewels or rare beauty. The Caliph admired the beauty of the sword and also praised the honesty of the troops, who has kept back nothing from what had fallen into their hands. “Commander of the Faithful,” remarked Ali, “When you yourself set a lofty example of honest, why should your people not be honest?

3) On reaching Byzantium, Heraclius sent for a former prisoner of war. He had fallen in the hands of Muslims and had recently escaped.  “What kind of people are they?” asked the Emperor.  “O Emperor,” replied the man, “they are a wonderful people. They are fearless warriors in the daytime but spend their nights in prayers. They do not get anything from the conquered people without paying for it. Wherever they go, they carry peace and justice with them. But if a people oppose them, they do not leave them alone until they give in.”  “If they possess such magical powers,” said the Emperor, “they are sure to conquer some day the ground under my feet.”

4) The Caliph left Ali (RA) in Medina as his deputy and himself left for Jerusalem. He had only one attendant with him and only one camel to ride. Umar (RA) and the attendant rode the camel by turns. It happened to be the servant’s turn to ride on the day when they were to reach Jerusalem. “Commander of the Faithful,” said the attendant, “I give up my turn. It will look awkward, in the eyes of the people, if I ride and you lead the camel.” “Oh no,” replied Umar (RA), “I am not going to be unjust. The honor of Islam is enough for us all.”  Abu Ubaid, Khalid, Yazid and other officers of the army went some distance to receive the Caliph. All of them were wearing silk cloaks. This made Umar (RA) angry. He took some pebbles and threw them at his generals, saying, “Have you changed so much in just two years? What dress is this? Even if you had done this two hundred years from now, I would have dismissed you.”  The officers replied, “Commander of the Faithful, we are in a land where the quality of clothes worn tells the rank of a man. If we wear ordinary clothes, we will command little respect among the people. However, we are wearing our arms underneath the silken robes.”  This answer cooled down the anger of the Caliph. Next the Caliph signed the treaty of peace. It ran as follows:“From the servant of Allah and the Commander of the Faithful, Umar: The inhabitants of Jerusalem are granted security of life and property. Their churches and crosses shall be secure. This treaty applies to all people of the city. Their places of worship shall remain intact. These shall neither be taken over nor pulled down. People shall be quite free to follow their religion. They shall not be put to any trouble…”

The gates of the city were now opened. Umar (RA) went straight to the Masjid-i-Aqsa. Here he said his prayer under David’s Arch. Next he visited the biggest Christian church of the city. He was in the church when the time for the afternoon prayer came.  “You may say your prayers in the church,” said the Bishop.  “No,” replied Umar (RA), “if I do so, the Muslims may one day make this an excuse for taking over the church from you.” So he said his prayers on the steps of the church. Even then, he gave the Bishop in writing. It said that the steps were never to be used for congregational prayers nor was the Adhan (call to prayer) to be said there.

5) There was a great famine in Hijaz. The Caliph took steps to get food supplies from Syria and Egypt. All the same, the general suffering was widespread. Umar (RA) felt very much for his people. So much so that he swore not to touch butter and honey as long as the famine lasted.  This had a bad effect on his health. Seeing this, his servant managed to get some butter and honey with the meals on day. But Umar (RA) refused to touch them, saying, “If I do not taste suffering, how can I know the suffering of others?”

6) The Coptic’s were Christians. But they followed a savage practice. They used to hold a big festival in the early summer each year. This was a day of general merrymaking. However, the day was also marred with human sacrifice. A beautiful maiden, dressed as a bride, was thrown into the Nile. People that that the sacrifice was necessary to please the Nile, and get a big flood of water for their parched fields. If the Nile got displeased, they thought, there would be no flood and hence no crops. The Coptic’s, asked Amr (RA) permission to sacrifice a maiden as usual. He disallowed the savage act. It so happened that the Nile had very little water that year. Crops failed. Many of the peasants decided to leave the country. Amr (RA) wrote to the Caliph for advice. The Caliph approved Amr’s (RA) action. He also sent a letter, addressed to the Nile. It said: “From the servant of Allah and Commander of the Muslims to the River of the Nile of Egypt. O Nile, if you flow of your own will, then do not flow. But if your flow is controlled by Allah, the Almighty, we pray to Him to keep you flowing.” This letter was thrown into the river, as directed by the Caliph. The river overflowed its banks that year. Such a big flood had not been seen for years. The country was once again green with crops. The peasants were happy. The savage practice of human sacrifice came to an end for ever.

Abu Bakr Siddiq (First Caliph)

Abu Bakr Siddiq (First Caliph) “No one has been a better companion to me than Abu Bakr,” said Prophet (SAW) in his last sermon. A great reward indeed! Abu Bakr (RA) had earned it.

Abu Bakr (RA) was two years younger than the Prophet (SAW). His parents named him Abdul Kaaba, which means the servant of the Kaaba. When he became a Muslim, the Prophet (SAW) changed his pagan name to Abdullah. However, in early youth he had adopted the surname of Abu Bakr. He had come to be known by this name among people. Even to this day, the world generally knows him as Abu Bakr.

The name of Abu Bakr’s father was Uthman, but he was known as Abu Qahafa. Salma was Abu Bakr’s mother. She was also known as Umm-ul-Khair. Abu Bakr belonged to a branch of the Quraish.

From early years, Abu Bakr (RA) was known for good and upright nature. He was honest and truthful. He came of a noble family. These things won him respect among the people. His goodness also won him the friendship of young Muhammad (SAW). The two became fast friends in early boyhood. The friendship was to prove lifelong and history-making.

When he grew up, Abu Bakr (RA) became a rich merchant. But he used to be very kind-hearted. When he saw someone in trouble, his heart melted. He did his best to help him. If his money could remove suffering, he did not care home much he had to spend. Once he gave away thirty-five dirham’s out of his total fortune of forty thousand. He was so honest in his dealings that people kept their money with him. Abu Bakr (RA) had a sincere heart and a firm will. Nothing could stop him from doing what he thought was the right thing to do.

These great qualities were soon to serve the noblest cause known to the world. Abu Bakr (RA) was to become the strongest supporter of the Redeemer of mankind. He was to become the first among the Companions. He was to make Arabia and thereby the world safe for Islam after the Prophet (SAW) has passed away.

All his life he stood by the side of the Prophet (SAW). He did not care for his life. He did not care for his riches. He did not care for what others said about him. His only ambition was to serve the Prophet (SAW) more than anyone else. The cost did not matter. The ambition was fulfilled. And Abu Bakr (RA) got his reward in full. The Messenger of Allah (SAW) was well pleased with him. He gave him the first place among the Companions. Abu Bakr (RA) was to be the first man to fill the place of the Prophet (RA). He was also to lie in eternal rest by the Prophet’s (SAW) side.

Abu Bakr (RA) was always very close to the Prophet (SAW). He knew him better than any other man. He knew how honest and upright his friend had always been. So he was the first among men to believe in the Prophet’s (SAW) mission. He was the first adult male to accept Islam. After the first revelation, the Prophet (SAW) told him what had happened at Mount Hira. He told him that Allah had made him His Messenger. Abu Bakr (RA) did not stop to think. He at once became a Muslim. Once the Prophet (SAW) himself remarked, “I called people to Islam. Everybody thought over it, at least for a while. But this was not the case with Abu Bakr. The moment I put Islam before him, he accepted it without any hesitation.”

Abu Bakr (RA) did more than that. As soon as he became a Muslim, he began to preach Islam to others. He had many friends. The friends knew that Abu Bakr (RA) was sincere and truthful. They knew he would never support a wrong cause. He called them to Islam and they became Muslims. Among them were men like Uthman (RA), Zubair (RA), Talha(RA), Abdur Rahman bin Auf  (RA)and Saad bin Waqqas (RA). These men later became the pillars of Islam.

The Prophet (SAW) called at Abu Bakr’s (RA) house every day. The two sad down and thought out ways of spreading Islam. Together they went to people and places and delivered the message of Allah. Wherever the Prophet (SAW) went, Abu Bakr (RA) went with him.

One day the Prophet (SAW) was saying his prayers in the Kaaba. He was totally lost in the thoughts of Allah. Abu Jahl and some other chiefs of Mecca were sitting in the courtyard of the Kaaba. “I must finish with Muhammad today,” said Abu Jahl. So saying, he took a long piece of cloth. He put it around the holy Prophet’s neck. Then he twisted it hard. He was going to strangle the Messenger of Allah (SAW) to death. The other chiefs looked on and laughed.

Abu Bakr (RA) happened to see this from a distance. He at once ran to the help of the Prophet (SAW). He pushed Abu Jahl aside and took off the cloth from around the Prophet’s (SAW) neck. Thereupon Abu Jahl and other enemies of Islam came down upon Abu Bakr (RA). They beat him very much. Indeed, the beating was so severe that Abu Bakr (RA) fell down senseless. He was carried home. He could not regain his senses till after several hours. And when he did come to himself, the first question he asked was, “Is the Prophet (SAW) un-hurt?” Abu Bakr (RA) did not care for his own suffering. He was glad that he was able to save the Prophet’s (SAW) life. Abu Bakr (RA) knew full well that if any harm came to the Prophet (SAW), the only hope of mankind would be gone. This made him risk everything he held dear, for the safety of the Prophet (SAW) and for the spread of his message.

Abu Bakr’s (RA) wealth came to the rescue of many helpless Muslim slaves. He bought them from their inhuman masters and set them free. Bilaal (RA), was one of such slaves. He was the slave of Omayya bin Khalaf. Omayya was a heartless man. He would strip Bilaal (RA) of all clothes, make him lie on the burning sand at mid-day and then lash him mercilessly. Despite this torture Bilaal (RA) would go on saying, “Allah is one! Allah is one!” One day Abu Bakr (RA) happened to pass by. He was greatly moved by the sight. “Why are you so cruel to this helpless man?” he asked Omayya. “If you feel for him, why you don’t buy him?” retorted Omayya. So Abu Bakr (RA) at once bought Bilaal (RA) at a heavy price and set him free. Bilaal (RA) afterwards became the well-known “Muezzin” [ one who gives the call for prayer ] at the Prophet’s Mosque.

The Title of “Siddiq”

I n the tenth year of his mission, the Prophet (SAW) had the Mairaaj of Ascension. One night the angel Jibraeel (AS) came with the word that Allah the Almighty wanted the Prophet (SAW) to come all the way up to the highest heaven. The Prophet (SAW) undertook the journey.


In the morning, after the ascension had taken place, the Prophet (SAW) talked to people about the Mairaaj. This drew the jeers of his enemies.

“Look!” the howled out, “what nonsense he talks! Surely, now his followers too will laugh at him. Who is going to believe in such a midsummer night dream?”

The talk was going on when Abu Bakr (RA) came up. “Do you know, Abu Bakr, what news your friend has for you in the morning?” said one of the mean. “He says he was on the highest heaven last night, having a talk with Allah, the Almighty. Would you believe it?”

“I would believe anything that the Messenger of Allah says,” replied Abu Bakr (RA)

When the Prophet (SAW) learnt of this, he at once said, “Abu Bakr is the `Siddiq’.” `Siddiq’ is a person so sincere of heart that doubts never mar his love. Abu Bakr earned this title because of his faith was too strong to be shaken by anything.

W hen the Makkans were intent on putting out, once and for all, the light of Islam, Allah commanded the Prophet (SAW) to move to Medina. In the burning heat of the midday sun, there was a knock at Abu Bakr’s (RRA) door. He ran to the door and found the Messenger of Allah (SAW) standing outside. “I must leave for Medina tonight,” said The Prophet (SAW).

“Will I also have the honor of going with you?” asked Abu Bakr (RA) eagerly.

“Of course. Set about getting things ready.” Replied the Prophet (SAW)

Abu Bakr (RA) was beside himself with joy. “I have been looking forward to this day for months,” he exclaimed. “I have specifically kept two camels to carry us to Medina.”

It was Abu Bakr (RA) who made all the arrangements for the historic journey. For three days he and the Prophet (SAW) lay hidden in the Thaur cave. Abu Bakr’s (RA) slave tended the flocks of goats near the cave all day and supplied them fresh milk for food. His son, Abdullah, brought news about what the Makkans were doing.

The Makkans were searching for the Prophet (SAW). Once they came right to the mouth of the cave. Abu Bakr (RA) grew pale with fright. He feared, not for himself, but for the Prophet (SAW). However, the Prophet (SAW) remained perfectly calm. “Do not fear,” he said to Abu Bakr, “certainly Allah is with us.”

Of all the companions, Abu Bakr (RA) had the honor of being with the Prophet (SAW) during the most critical days of his life. Abu Bakr (RA) knew full well what this honor meant. And he did full justice to the trust put in him.

When peace talks at Hudaibiya were going on, Abu Bakr (RA) sat by the side of the Prophet (SAW). During conversation, the spokesman of the Quraish ever now and then gave a jerk to the beard of the Prophet (SAW), after the Arab fashion. This was too much for Abu Bakr (RA). He took out his sword and looked angrily at the man. “If that hand touches the beard of the Prophet (SAW) again,” he warned, “it will not be allowed to go back.”

This amazed the Makkans agents. “What a change in Abu Bakr!” they whispered to one another. “He was known for soft-heartedness. How strong and firm he is now become! He is no longer the self-same Abu Bakr.”

Tabuk was the last expedition of the Prophet (SAW). He was keen to make it a great success. He asked people to help the expedition with whatever they could. This time Abu Bakr (RA) beat all past records. He took all his money and household articles and heaped them at the Prophet’s feet.

“Have you left back anything for your wife and children?” asked the Prophet (SAW).

“Allah and His Apostle are enough for them,” replied Abu Bakr (RA) calmly. Those standing around were stunned. It was impossible to outdo Abu Bakr in the field of service to Islam. The Prophet (SAW) felt much pleased at this answer. He made Abu Bakr (RA) the standard-bearer of the expedition. Abu Bakr’s closeness to the Prophet (SAW) and his boundless devotion to Islam won him universal respect. Not only was he the first man to accept Islam, he was also the foremost among Muslims to uphold the cause of Islam. Ever since he came to Medina, the Prophet (SAW) himself led prayers in the Prophet’s Mosque. It was an unusually high office which the Messenger of Allah (SAW) himself filled. During his last illness, the Prophet (SAW) could no longer lead prayers. He grew too weak to go to the mosque. He had to appoint someone to act in his place. This honor also fell to the lot of Abu Bakr (RA). Aisha (RA), who was Abu Bakr’s (RA) daughter and a wife of the Prophet (SAW), thought that the burden was too much for her tender-hearted father. She pleaded with the Prophet (SAW) to excuse here father from this duty. But the Prophet (SAW) did not change his mind. Thus in the lifetime of the Prophet (SAW) Abu Bakr (RA) came to fill the highest office under Islam. One day Abu Bakr (RA) was away on some business and Umar (RA) led the prayer in his absence. “This is not Abu Bakr’s voice,” remarked the ailing Messenger of Allah (SAW). “No one but he should lead prayers. He is the fittest person for this high office.” On the last day of his life, the condition of the Prophet (SAW) became suddenly better for a while. It was early morning. Abu Bakr (RA) was leading the prayer in the mosque. The Prophet (SAW) lifted the curtain of his door and fixed his gaze on the worshippers. They were busy in prayer under Abu Bakr’s (RA) leadership. A smile lite up on the pale face of the Prophet (SAW). He let go of the curtain, as his weak hand could no longer hold it. But he was happy at the thought that he had chosen the best man to fill his place. The news of the Prophet’s (SAW) death came as a stunning shock to everyone. How could it be? He had been ill for some days, they all knew. But death was unbelievable. That simply could not be. Huge crowds gathered in the mosque. No one knew what to do. There was utter confusion. Umar (RA) was so overcome with emotion that he drew his sword and declared, “If anyone says that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) is dead. I will cut off his head!” Things were in this state when Abu Bakr (RA) entered the mosque. Finding the Prophet (SAW) better that morning, he had gone a few miles outside of Medina, earlier in the day, but had come back on hearing the sad news. He took his stand in a corner of the courtyard and called out to the people. All eyes were turned towards him. Then he began his famous address: “O people! If anyone among you worshipped Muhammad, let him know that Muhammad is dead. But those who worship Allah, let him know that He lives and will never die. Let all of us recall the words of the Qur’an. It says, `Muhammad is only a Messenger of Allah There have been Messengers before him. What then, will you turn back from Islam, if he dies or is killed?” These words of Abu Bakr worked magic. In no time the confusion was gone. The words of the Qur’an swept of all doubts from people’s minds. They got ready to face facts.

Election of Abu Bakr

The first problem before the people was the election of a new leader. There had to be a head of the State of things could not work. The need was too urgent to allow delay. Delay might have meant disorder and the undoing of all that the Messenger of Allah had done. The Prophet of Allah (SAW) had died but the head of the state had to live on. The two big groups among Muslims were the Muhajirin (refugees from Mecca) and the Ansar (helpers or the people of Medina). The Ansar gathered together at Thaqifa Bani Saida, their meeting place, near the house of Saad bin Abada. The talk naturally centered on the election of a Caliph. Saad, the Ansar leader, stood up and said that the Caliph must be from among them. Many voices seconded him. One man, however, stood up and said, “But how about the Muhajirin? They have perhaps a better claim.” “Then let there be two caliphs,” suggested someone, “one from among the Ansar and the other from among the Muhajirin.” Someone told Abu Bakr (RA) what was going on at this gathering. He saw the need to act quickly or confusion might set in again. So taking with him a part of Muhajirin he went to Thaqif Bani Saida. He addressed the gathering and said, “Both the Muhajirin and the Ansar have done great services to Islam. But the former were the first to accept Islam. They were always very close to the Messenger of Allah. So, O Ansar let the Caliph be from among them.”

To this a man from the Khazraj tribe replied, “If you don’t want a Caliph from among us, let there be two Caliphs, one an Ansari and the other a Muhajir.”

“That won’t work,” said Abu Obaida bin Jarrah. “O Ansar, you are the people who made Islam strong now, don’t do anything that may undo your work.”

Hearing this, another man said, “O Ansar, if we did anything for Islam, we did it to please Allah and His Apostle. We did not thereby oblige anybody. This should not be made a plea to win office. Listen, the holy Prophet belonged to the Quraish tribe. The Quraish have a greater right to fill his place. By Allah, I do not think it right to quarrel with them over this matter. Fear Allah, and do not oppose them.”

This speech of a man from among them silenced the Ansar. They agreed to have a Muhajif as the Caliph. So Abu Bakr (RA) said, “Friends, I think either Umar or Abu Obaida should be the Caliph. Chose one of these two gentlemen.”

Hearing this both Umar and Abu Obaida jumped to their feet, and exclaimed, “O Siddiq, how can that be? How can anyone else fill this office as long as you are among us? You are the top man among the Muhajirin. You were the companion of the Prophet (SAW) in the Thaur Cave. You led prayers in his place, during his last illness. Prayer is the foremost thing in Islam. With all these qualifications, you are the fittest person to be the successor of the Prophet (SAW). Hold out your hand that we many pledge loyalty to you.” But Abu Bakr (RA) did not stretch out his hand. Umar (RA) saw that delay might lead to the reopening of the whole question. That could easily create difficulties. So he himself took Abu Bakr’s (RA) hand and pledged loyalty to him. Others followed his example. Men from all sides rushed to pledge loyalty to the successor of the Prophet (SAW). Abu Bakr (RA) became Caliph by the general consent of the people.

The First Address

On the following day, Abu Bakr (RA) went to the Prophet’s (SAW) mosque here people took the general oath of loyalty. When this was over, Abu Bakr (RA) mounted the pulpit as the Caliph of Islam. Then he spoke to the gathering as follows: “O people, I have been elected your leader, although I am not better than anyone from among you. If I do any good, give me your support. If I go wrong, set me right. Listen, truth is honesty and untruth is dishonesty. The weak among you are powerful in my eyes, as long as I do not get them their due, Allah willing. The powerful among you are weak in my eyes, as long as I do not take away from them what is due to others, Allah willing. Listen, if people give up striving for the cause of Allah, Allah sends down disgrace on them. If a people become evil doers, Allah sends down calamities on them. Listen, you must obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger. If I disobey Allah and His Messenger, you are free to disobey me.” Such was the Magna Carta granted by the first Caliph of Islam to his people, on the first day of his rule, without their asking. Abu Bakr (RA)showed by his example that in Islam government means government of the people, by the people and for the people.

Ali’s Delay

Four or six months Ali (RA) and some of his relatives did not pledge loyalty to Abu Bakr (RA). That was because of a difference of opinion with the Caliph. The Prophet (SAW) had some land at Medina and Khaibar. His daughter, Fatima, and his uncle, Abbas, laid claim to this land. But Abu Bakr (RA) set aside the claim, in the light of what the Prophet (SAW) himself had said. “We Prophets cannot be inherited;” was his saying; “whatever we leave behind is public property.”  Fatima (RA) new nothing of this saying of her father. She thought she was perfectly right in her claim. This created a little bitterness in her mind, and the mind of her husband, Ali (RA). The hypocrites were quick to add to the misunderstanding. But Abu Bakr (RA) and Ali (RA) were equally unselfish. During Fatima’s illness, Abu Bakr (RA) himself went to see her and cleared away the misunderstanding. After her death, Ali (RA) went to Abu Bakr (RA) and said, “O Siddiq, we admit your superiority. We do not envy the position Allah has given you. But as relatives of the Prophet (SAW), we thought Caliphate to be our right. You had taken away this right of ours.” These words brought tears in Abu Bakr’s (RA) eyes and he said, “By Allah, the relatives of the Prophet (SAW) are dearer to me than my own relatives.” The assurance satisfied Ali (RA). He went to the mosque and publicly took the pledge of loyalty.

The Passing Away Of Abu Bakr (RA)

After an illness of two weeks, Abu Bakr (RA) passed away. He was sixty-three at the time. He was buried by the side of the Prophet (SAW).Before his death he said, “Do not use new cloth to cover my dead body. The sheet of cloth I have on will do for me. Wash it clean.” “But this is too old and worn, father,” said his daughter Aisha.“This old and worn sheet will do for me,” he replied.This parting wish was acted upon. The second wish of the dying Caliphs was, “Sell my land and pay back in the public treasury all the money I got as my salary.” This was also done. Before he became the Caliph, Abu Bakr was a well-to-day merchant. The affairs of the Caliphate left him no time to look after his own business. The matter was put before the Companions. They allowed the Caliph a salary of six thousand dirham’s a year. All this money was paid back to the Bait-ul-Mal (the Public Treasury) after the Caliph’s death.Thus Abu Bakr (RA) , the first Caliph, left behind a noble example of selfless service. He lived and worked for Islam to the last breath. And for his tireless labors, he sought no worldly reward.

Two Years Caliphate of Abu Bakr’s

Abu Bakr (RA) was Caliph for only two years, three months and ten days. This was a relatively short period of time in the life of people. But during this short period, Abu Bakr (RA) was able to do great things for Islam. These achievements have made his name immortal. They have placed him among the greatest men of all time. When Abu Bakr (RA) too over, Islam was confined to Arabia alone. And here, too its hold was rather shaky. In many parts of the country, Islam was but a name. It was not a way of life with most people. Scores of tribes had thought of the Prophet (SAW) has a mere king. They tried to throw off his yoke as soon as he was no more. Abu Bakr (RA) taught these people a lasting lesson. He taught them that Islam was a way of life.

Abu Bakr (RA) was able to do this because of his unshakable faith. No difficulties could take him off the path of the Prophet. Abu Bakr (RA) was as sincere as he was firm in faith. He lived up to every word of what he said at the beginning of his Caliphate. He was never anything but the faithful agent of Allah and His Apostle, and the humblest servant of his people. It was this fact which won him the deepest love and respect for all classes of his people. The result was that Islam took an unshakable hold on the country of its birth. Soon it gathered enough strength to overlap its boundaries. It struck at the two most feared powers of the time. And lo! It was successful. Abu Bakr (RA) had put Islam on the road to worldwide expansion. Islam means total submission to the will of Allah. It means that utter absence of all selfishness. The Prophet (SAW) showed by his example how that goal could be reached. He showed how the power of the State should not be used for private ends but for the public good. Abu Bakr (RA) was the first among his followers to live up to the Prophet’s (SAW) example.. He spent every minute of the last two years of life in the service of his people, but got not a penny as wages. Abu Bakr (RA) had several sons and many near relatives. For public offices, he did not choose anyone of them. He rather chose other people who were fit for public service. He had to nominate his own successor to prevent quarrels. But his choice fell on none of his own relatives. His choice was rather the man whom he honestly believed to be the best among the Companions. All the same, he did not force his choice on people. He put his proposal before the Companions. When they had agreed to it, he put it before the people. In short, Abu Bakr (RA) showed the world what government of the people, for the people, and by the people really meant. Neither the East nor the West had ever known such a form of government before. The mighty empires of Iran and Byzantium were based upon naked force. In short Abu Bakr (RA) kept going the great work of the Prophet (SAW). For that he had to fight hard. He fought with a will and with a faith that amazed everyone. Islam is for ever grateful to him for the great services he rendered to it.