Eid al-Adha “Festival of Sacrifice”
Why Should One Make Qurbani?
Ayesha (RA) stated that Rasulullah (SAW) said: “The son of Adam does not do any action on the day of Qurbani which is more pleasing to Allah than the sacrifice of animals; and he will come on the day of Qiyamah with it’s hairs, horns and hooves (for reward); and the blood (of the sacrificed animal) certainly reaches Allah before it falls down to the ground. So make yourselves purified therewith.” (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)
Zaid bin Arqam (RA) reported that the companions of Rasulullah (SAW) asked: “Oh! Messenger of Allah, what is this sacrifice?” Rasulullah (SAW) said: “The way of your forefather (Prophet) Ibrahim (AS).” They said, “What is for us therein, O! Messenger of Allah?” Rasulullah (SAW) said: “There is one reward for every hair.” They said: “For wool, O! Messenger of Allah?” Rasulullah (SAW) said: “There is one reward for every strand of wool.”(Ibn Majah)
When Must Qurbani Be Made?
Qurbani or Sacrifice is carried out from the 10th of Zil- Hijjah (i.e. from the day of Eid-ul-Adha) after the completion of the Eid Salaah and Khutba, till sunset on the 12th of Zil- Hijjah. The times of preference for Qurbani are the first day, i.e. the 10th of Zil-Hijjah from the completion of the Eid Salaah, followed by the second day and lastly the third day. If for some reason, animals purchased for Qurbani are not slaughtered in the time and duration of the Qurbani period, i.e. 10th, 11th & 12th of Zil-Hijjah, then such animals must be donated alive to charity.
Who Should Make Qurbani?
1) It is Waajib for every Muslim male and Muslim female who:-
a-has attained puberty.
b-is of sound mind (not insane).
c-possesses Nisaab for that moment in time, not necessarily for one Islamic calendar year (Nisaab is the value of excess wealth which makes a Muslim liable for Zakah i.e. The possession of, or equivalent capital value of seven and half tolas gold (+ -3 ounces) or fifty two tolas of silver (+ – 20 ounces)
d-to make sacrifice in the Name of Allah
2) It is Waajib according to Imam Abu Hanifa and Sunnat-e-Mu’akidda according to
other Imams for Muslims to make Qurbani.
3) It is Waajib only for each Muslim male and female to make Qurbani for himself or herself; and not Waajib for him or her to make Qurbani for any other member of his or her family. It is only his or her duty to guide or instruct them to make Qurbani if they meet with the conditions of item in 1. above.
4) In the same manner as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr, Qurbani is a Waajib obligation for Muslims every year on the occasion of Eid-ul-Adha. It is not a once in a life-time duty.
5) It is permissible to make Qurbani in the name of Rasulullah (SAW) and his Ummah or any other deceased Muslim as a Nafl Qurbani on condition that the person making the Nafl Qurbani has discharged his obligation in his own Waajib Qurbani first.
6) It is not Waajib or necessary for the following people to make Qurbani:-
a-one who has not attained puberty even if he or she possesses Nisaab.
b-A traveller (who is not yet Muqeem).
c-One who does not possess Nisaab during that specific period in time.
D-One who may be in possession of Nisaab bit has turned insane.
7) Any Muslim male or female who is not liable for Qurbani but purchases an animal for Qurbani for the sake of Almighty Allah, then the Qurbani becomes Waajib for him.
8) Qurbani cannot be undertaken on behalf of another person upon who Qurbani is Waajib, without his or her prior consent.
WHAT Animals Must Be Used For Qurbani
1) Only the following animals may be sacrificed for Qurbani:-
a-Goat and Sheep with a minimum of 1 year each.
b-Cattle with a minimum of 2 years.
c-Camels with a minimum of 5 years.
2) Each goat or sheep suffices for Qurbani for one Muslim male or female; whereas each head of cattle or camel could represent the Qurbani for seven Muslim males and females, provided that:-
a-All seven participants have uniformity in Niyyat (i.e. either Qurbani or Aqeeqa).
b-All seven have an equal share, nobody is to have a larger portion than another even at the time of the distribution of the meat.
3) It is permissible for less than seven people to have shares in a camel or a head of cattle for Qurbani; but not permissible for more than 7 people to do so.
What Type Of Defective Animals Are To Be Avoided?
The animals for Qurbani in the Name of Almighty Allah shall be in prime condition of health and free from defects. The following defects in animals disqualifies them from being used for Qurbani:-
1) Animals without ears or more than one third of the ear is defective, partially blind (one third or more), or totally blind animals; animals with horns broken from the root; animals that have most or all their teeth missing; animals which have limbs broken or used three legs to walk; animals with a third or more or their tail cut off.
2) Sick and emaciated animals that lack the ability to move or walk.
Who Should Make Slaughter And What Should Be Recited?
1) Owners of Qurbani animals, whether male or female, who have the knowledge of making Zabah should slaughter their own animals.
2) If other persons are appointed to slaughter on their behalf, then it is better for the owners of the Qurbani animals to be present at the place and time of slaughter.
3) Before slaughtering, When making Qurbani, place the animal facing the Qibla and recite:
إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّماَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفَاً وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ . إِنَّ صَلاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ العَالَمِينَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ المُسْلِمِينَ ، اللَّهُمَّ مِنْكَ وَلَكَ
Transliteration: “Inni wajjahtu wajhiya lillazi fataras samawaati wal arda hanifaw wa maaa ana minal mushrikeen. Inna salaati wanusuki wa mahyaya wamamati lillahi rabbil a’lameen. La sharika lahu wabizaalika umirtu wa ana minal muslimeen. Allahumma minka walak.”
“I have turned my face to that Being who has created the skies and the Earth in the state of the Straight Deen of Ibrahim – and I am not amongst the Mushrikeen. Definitely, my Salaat, my Ibaadat and my living and dying is all for Allah, who is the Lord of the worlds, and who has no partner. I have been ordered (all that passed) I am amongst the Muslimeen (the obedient). O Allah this sacrifice is due to You granting us the ability to do so and it is for You”.
4) The person should then slaughter the animal reading: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ
Transliteration: “Bismillahi Allahu Akbar”
“In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest.”
Some Important Requirements About Zabah.
1) The knife for Zabah has to be sharpened to the optimum, and the slaughter should be carried out quickly and effectively to minimize the suffering sustained by the animal.
2) The throat of the Qurbani animal should be cut in a manner to ensure that the gullet, the wind pipe and the two external jugular veins are severed. It is Makrooh to severe the entire neck including the vertebrae. At least 3 of the four vessels mentioned above ought to be severed to meet Shariah requirements of proper Zabah.
3) Every effort should be made to ensure that animals are not slaughtered in the presence of other live animals.
4) In the process of slaughtering, the knife should be concealed till the moment of slaughter and the animal should be placed such that it allows the person slaughtering the animal to face Qiblah, as this is Mustahabb.
5) The skinning of the slaughtered animal and dismembering of body parts should not commence until the animal’s carcass has turned cold.
6) If after slaughtering an animal it is discovered that the animal was pregnant and a live fetus appears in the belly, then it is necessary to slaughter that fetus.
Distribution Of Qurbani Meat To Non-Muslims.
Distribution of Qurbani meat or any other charity (sadaqah) to “Harbi Kaafir” is not permissible at all. It is mentioned in Durr-e-Mukhtar: “Even though a Harbi Kaafir is peace-wanting, charity is unanimously not permissible.” In Behr-ur- Raiq: “According to Shariah, giving something to a Harbi Kaafir is not permissible, for no Sawaab can be gained through this.”
Important Advice For Muslim.
Many people make Qurbani on behalf of their parents, grandparents, Prophets and Saints, and not on their behalf. By doing so, they are neglecting their Waajib and thus become sinners through this action. Every Muslim must first make Qurbani on their behalf first so that their Waajib is fulfilled. Only after the Waajib is completed and if one is able to do
so, can Qurbani be made on behalf of others. It is preferable to make Qurbani on behalf of Rasulullah (SAW) as it is virtuous and beneficial and has his blessings. Rasulullah (SAW) made Qurbani on behalf of all the poor people of his Ummah. This shows the love that he possessed for his Ummah. Therefore, every Muslim who is capable of making Qurbani on behalf of others should make Qurbani on behalf of our Rasulullah (SAW).
The Islamic Method Of Slaughtering.
Those who are ignorant about the proper Islamic method that is carried out in the slaughtering of animals do not hesitate in criticizing Muslims and in regarding this Islamic method of slaughter as primitive, barbaric and a cruelty to animals. The aim of presenting this article is to inform the public that the Islamic method of slaughtering an animal is most humane, painless and better than the current methods of mechanical and electrical stunning of animals that are normally done in abattoirs. In order for large meat industries and commercial establishments to provide a much higher production, they all favour the method of mechanical and electrical stunning. They regard all other methods of slaughter as cruel and even manage to get the support of Animal Rights groups to oppose the Islamic method of slaughter. In the Islamic method of slaughtering an animal, the animal is slaughtered by a sharp object which is capable of making it bleed by severing blood vessels. The slaughtering is to be done by cutting the throat of the animal or by piercing the hollow of the throat, causing its death. The best way is to cut the windpipe, the gullet, and the two jugular veins. The wisdom of the Islamic rules of slaughtering is to take the animal’s life in the quickest and least painful way; the requirements of using a sharp instrument and of cutting the throat relate to this end. No additional stunner is necessary. This method also allows for the most rapid and efficient bleeding of the animal. When the sharp knife enters the tissues of the neck, its cuts open four big blood vessels in the region. So much blood is lost so quickly that the animal becomes unconscious and feels no pain. When the animal convulses, one gets the impression that it is undergoing pain and suffering. However, this is not the case. In the Islamic manner of slaughtering, the spinal cord is not severed since the nervous connection between the brain and the body is maintained so that all the blood is squeezed out of the body. When convulsion takes place, the wringing actions of the muscles of the body on the blood vessels help to get rid of the maximum amount of blood from the meat tissue. In fact, the occurrence of convulsions confirms that the animal is unconscious. Thus, the animal also does not experience any pain. In view of the above considerations, attempts to discredit the Islamic method of slaughter are ill-conceived. Based on scientific evidence, it should not be too difficult for individuals and groups to give up their attempts to interfere with religious beliefs and religious laws in general. The Islamic method of slaughter has stood the test of time and of scientific enquiry and remains by far the best, the most efficient and the safest.